By: Hirschi H.B. No. 1910 73R2100 JSA-D A BILL TO BE ENTITLED 1-1 AN ACT 1-2 relating to redistricting by the Texas Ethics Commission, judicial 1-3 review of redistricting plans, and restrictions on members of and 1-4 membership on the commission. 1-5 BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF TEXAS: 1-6 SECTION 1. Chapter 304, Acts of the 72nd Legislature, 1-7 Regular Session, 1991 (Article 6252-9d.1, Vernon's Texas Civil 1-8 Statutes), is amended by adding Section 1.04 to read as follows: 1-9 Sec. 1.04. QUALIFICATIONS. To protect the integrity of the 1-10 commission's redistricting activities, the following persons are 1-11 not eligible to serve on the commission: 1-12 (1) a person holding federal, state, or local elective 1-13 or appointive office; 1-14 (2) a person related in the second degree by 1-15 consanguinity or within the first degree by affinity to a person 1-16 described by Subdivision (1) of this section; 1-17 (3) an employee of the legislature, of a member of the 1-18 legislature, or of a legislative agency; or 1-19 (4) a person required to register as a lobbyist under 1-20 Section 305.003(a)(2), Government Code. 1-21 SECTION 2. The Revised Statutes are amended by adding 1-22 Article 6252-9d.2 to read as follows: 1-23 Art. 6252-9d.2. REDISTRICTING BY ETHICS COMMISSION 1-24 PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 2-1 Sec. 1.01. DEFINITIONS. (a) In this article: 2-2 (1) "Census" means the federal decennial census. 2-3 (2) "Commission" means the Texas Ethics Commission. 2-4 (b) For purposes of this section, the census is published 2-5 when the official detailed population counts of the census are 2-6 delivered as provided by law to an official of this state. 2-7 Sec. 1.02. APPLICATION OF ARTICLE. This article applies to 2-8 the redistricting of the districts used to elect: 2-9 (1) this state's members of the United States House of 2-10 Representatives; 2-11 (2) members of the Texas House of Representatives and 2-12 Texas Senate; and 2-13 (3) members of the State Board of Education. 2-14 Sec. 1.03. HOUSE AND SENATE CONSIDERED TOGETHER. For 2-15 purposes of this article, the redistricting plans for the Texas 2-16 House of Representatives and the Texas Senate are considered 2-17 together as a single plan. 2-18 Sec. 1.04. TECHNICAL SUPPORT. (a) The commission shall 2-19 secure computer and other technical support for redistricting under 2-20 this article. 2-21 (b) The computer must be located on premises of the 2-22 commission. The commission shall provide security to prohibit 2-23 unauthorized access to the computer and other redistricting 2-24 facilities and materials. 2-25 (c) The commission shall complete its technical preparations 2-26 for redistricting, including the programming and testing of 2-27 computer support, on or before December 31 of the year in which the 3-1 census is taken. 3-2 Sec. 1.05. COMMISSION MEMBER INELIGIBLE TO BECOME CANDIDATE. 3-3 A member of the commission serving at any time between the date the 3-4 census is published and the date the commission adopts a 3-5 redistricting plan under this article pursuant to that census may 3-6 not become a candidate in any district under that plan during the 3-7 four years following the date the commission adopts the plan. 3-8 PART 2. PROCEDURES 3-9 Sec. 2.01. RULES. (a) The commission shall adopt rules for 3-10 the administration of its redistricting activities. 3-11 (b) The commission shall hold public hearings in each region 3-12 of this state as necessary to provide all interested persons a 3-13 reasonable opportunity to comment on its proposed rules before the 3-14 commission adopts its final rules for each decade's redistricting. 3-15 (c) The commission shall adopt its final rules for each 3-16 decade's redistricting before January 1 of the year in which the 3-17 census is to be taken. 3-18 (d) The commission may make additional revisions to its 3-19 rules during the year in which the census is taken. 3-20 Sec. 2.02. ADOPTION OF PLANS. (a) The commission shall 3-21 propose a preliminary plan for each body for which the commission 3-22 is required to adopt a redistricting plan before the next June 1 3-23 that follows the publication of the census. 3-24 (b) The commission shall hold public hearings around the 3-25 state after the date on which the commission proposes a preliminary 3-26 plan and the next July 15 following that date to solicit comment on 3-27 the plan. 4-1 (c) The commission shall adopt a final plan for each body 4-2 before the August 1 following the publication of the census. 4-3 (d) If the census is published later than April 1, the 4-4 commission by rule may adopt a different schedule to provide an 4-5 appropriate timetable to comply with the requirements of this 4-6 section. 4-7 Sec. 2.03. NEW PLANS AFTER JUDICIAL REVIEW. If the Supreme 4-8 Court of Texas pursuant to Part 4 of this article issues an order 4-9 holding that a plan adopted by the commission violates state law, 4-10 the commission shall propose a new plan to remedy the violations 4-11 found by the court not later than the 30th day after the date of 4-12 the court's decision. The commission shall hold at least one 4-13 public hearing in Austin on the new proposed plan and adopt a new 4-14 plan to remedy the violations not later than the 60th day after the 4-15 date of the court's decision. 4-16 Sec. 2.04. OTHER NECESSARY CHANGES. The commission may make 4-17 changes to an adopted plan at any time as necessary to correct a 4-18 legal or technical deficiency in the plan as determined by the 4-19 commission. 4-20 PART 3. STANDARDS GOVERNING PLANS 4-21 Sec. 3.01. POPULATION EQUALITY. (a) Districts for members 4-22 of the United States House of Representatives must be as equal in 4-23 population as practicable. 4-24 (b) The population of a district in any plan may not be more 4-25 than 105 percent or less than 95 percent of the ideal district 4-26 population. 4-27 (c) The average of the relative population deviations of all 5-1 districts in a plan may not exceed two percent. For purposes of 5-2 this subsection, the relative population deviation of a district is 5-3 the percentage that the difference between the district's 5-4 population and the ideal district population, disregarding whether 5-5 that difference is positive or negative, represents as a part of 5-6 the ideal district population. 5-7 (d) In this subsection, "population" means population 5-8 according to the census. 5-9 Sec. 3.02. MINORITY VOTING RIGHTS. (a) Each plan must 5-10 maintain existing levels of the voting strength of a racial or 5-11 language minority group. 5-12 (b) Each plan must protect the voting rights of any group as 5-13 guaranteed by federal law. 5-14 Sec. 3.03. INTEGRITY OF POLITICAL SUBDIVISIONS. (a) A 5-15 county or municipality with a population that does not exceed 105 5-16 percent of the ideal district population must be located entirely 5-17 in a single district. 5-18 (b) A county or municipality with a population greater than 5-19 105 percent of the ideal district population must contain as many 5-20 whole districts as the population of the county or municipality 5-21 permits, and the excess population of the county or municipality 5-22 not contained in those whole districts may not be located in more 5-23 than one other district. 5-24 (c) The commission may violate Subsection (a) or (b) of this 5-25 section if necessary to comply with Section 3.01 or 3.02 of this 5-26 article. If it is necessary to divide a county or municipality to 5-27 comply with Section 3.01 or 3.02 of this article, the commission 6-1 shall divide the county or municipality with the largest population 6-2 possible. 6-3 Sec. 3.04. CONTIGUITY AND COMPACTNESS. (a) All the 6-4 territory of each district must be contiguous with the rest of the 6-5 district. Two areas that contact each other at a single point are 6-6 not considered contiguous with each other. 6-7 (b) There must be convenient transportation among all areas 6-8 of each district that are located in different counties or 6-9 municipalities. 6-10 (c) The total length of the boundaries of all districts in a 6-11 plan must be as short as possible. 6-12 Sec. 3.05. HOUSE DISTRICTS WITHIN SENATE DISTRICTS. Each 6-13 district of the Texas Senate must contain five whole districts of 6-14 the Texas House of Representatives. 6-15 Sec. 3.06. PARTISAN VOTING AND INCUMBENCY NOT CONSIDERED. 6-16 (a) The commission may not draw a district for the purpose of 6-17 favoring a political party, incumbent officer, or other person or 6-18 group, except as required to comply with Section 3.02 of this 6-19 article. 6-20 (b) The commission may not consider the address of an 6-21 incumbent officer or other individual in drawing a plan. 6-22 (c) Unless necessary to comply with Section 3.02 of this 6-23 article, the commission may not consider previous election results 6-24 or other electoral information in drawing a plan. 6-25 PART 4. JUDICIAL REVIEW 6-26 Sec. 4.01. SUBMISSION TO SUPREME COURT. (a) The commission 6-27 shall submit the first redistricting plan adopted after the census 7-1 for each body for which the commission is required to redistrict to 7-2 the Supreme Court of Texas for review immediately after adopting 7-3 the plan. 7-4 (b) The commission shall submit any other adopted 7-5 redistricting plan or change to a plan to the supreme court for 7-6 review immediately if any citizen of this state petitions the 7-7 commission to do so on or before the 30th day after the date the 7-8 commission adopts the plan. 7-9 Sec. 4.02. COURT ACTION. The Supreme Court of Texas shall 7-10 determine whether a plan or change complies with the laws of this 7-11 state and issue a written order of its determination not later than 7-12 the 60th day after the date the plan or change is submitted by the 7-13 commission. If the court finds a plan or change to be invalid, the 7-14 court shall state its reasons for that finding and describe as 7-15 specifically as possible the changes or kinds of changes that would 7-16 be required to make the plan or change valid. 7-17 Sec. 4.03. REMEDIES EXCLUSIVE. A redistricting plan or 7-18 change that has been approved by the Supreme Court of Texas under 7-19 this article or for which the period for submission to that court 7-20 for review pursuant to a citizen petition has expired without the 7-21 filing of a petition is considered to comply with the law of this 7-22 state and may not be challenged in any court of this state. 7-23 PART 5. IMPLEMENTING PLAN 7-24 Sec. 5.01. PRECLEARANCE UNDER VOTING RIGHTS ACT. The 7-25 commission is responsible for submission of an adopted plan or 7-26 change to a plan for preclearance under Section 5 of the Voting 7-27 Rights Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. Section 1973c), if applicable. 8-1 Sec. 5.02. PLAN EFFECTIVE AT NEXT ELECTION. (a) A plan or 8-2 change in a plan that is approved by the Supreme Court of Texas 8-3 under this article or for which the period for submission to that 8-4 court pursuant to citizen petition has expired without the filing 8-5 of a petition, and that may be implemented under Section 5 of the 8-6 Voting Rights Act of 1965, shall be used for the next election for 8-7 offices under that plan for which the last date provided by law for 8-8 filing as a candidate in the primary election is at least 10 days 8-9 after the later of the following: 8-10 (1) the date the supreme court approves the plan or 8-11 change or the time for filing a citizen petition expires; or 8-12 (2) the earliest date the plan or change may be 8-13 implemented under Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. 8-14 (b) Until a new plan adopted by the commission takes effect 8-15 under Subsection (a) of this section, the plan in effect for the 8-16 preceding election shall be used for elections to the body covered 8-17 by the plan. 8-18 SECTION 3. This Act takes effect only if the constitutional 8-19 amendment providing for redistricting by the Texas Ethics 8-20 Commission proposed by the 73rd Legislature, Regular Session, 1993, 8-21 is approved by the voters. If that proposed constitutional 8-22 amendment is not approved, this Act has no effect. 8-23 SECTION 4. The importance of this legislation and the 8-24 crowded condition of the calendars in both houses create an 8-25 emergency and an imperative public necessity that the 8-26 constitutional rule requiring bills to be read on three several 8-27 days in each house be suspended, and this rule is hereby suspended.