This website will be unavailable from Thursday, May 30, 2024 at 6:00 p.m. through Monday, June 3, 2024 at 7:00 a.m. due to data center maintenance.

 
 
  H.B. No. 2187
 
 
 
 
AN ACT
  relating to the criminal offense of abandoning or endangering a
  child, elderly individual, or disabled individual.
         BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF TEXAS:
         SECTION 1.  Section 22.041, Penal Code, is amended to read as
  follows:
         Sec. 22.041.  ABANDONING OR ENDANGERING A CHILD, ELDERLY
  INDIVIDUAL, OR DISABLED INDIVIDUAL. (a) In this section:
               (1)  "Abandon"[, "abandon"] means to leave [a child] in
  any place without providing reasonable and necessary care a [for
  the] child, elderly individual, or disabled individual under
  circumstances under which no reasonable, similarly situated person
  [adult] would leave a child or individual of that age and ability.
               (2)  "Child," "elderly individual," and "disabled
  individual" have the meanings assigned by Section 22.04.
         (b)  A person commits an offense if the person, having
  custody, care, or control of a child, elderly individual, or
  disabled individual [younger than 15 years], [he] intentionally
  abandons the child or individual in any place under circumstances
  that expose the child or individual to an unreasonable risk of harm.
         (c)  A person commits an offense if the person [he]
  intentionally, knowingly, recklessly, or with criminal negligence,
  by act or omission, engages in conduct that places a child, elderly
  individual, or disabled individual [younger than 15 years] in
  imminent danger of death, bodily injury, or physical or mental
  impairment.
         (c-1)  For purposes of Subsection (c), it is presumed that a
  person engaged in conduct that places a child, elderly individual,
  or disabled individual in imminent danger of death, bodily injury,
  or physical or mental impairment if:
               (1)  the person manufactured, possessed, or in any way
  introduced into the body of any person the controlled substance
  methamphetamine in the presence of the child, elderly individual,
  or disabled individual;
               (2)  the person's conduct related to the proximity or
  accessibility of the controlled substance methamphetamine to the
  child, elderly individual, or disabled individual and an analysis
  of a specimen of the child's or individual's blood, urine, or other
  bodily substance indicates the presence of methamphetamine in the
  body of the child or individual [child's body]; or
               (3)  the person injected, ingested, inhaled, or
  otherwise introduced a controlled substance listed in Penalty Group
  1, Section 481.102, Health and Safety Code, or Penalty Group 1-B,
  Section 481.1022, Health and Safety Code, into the human body when
  the person was not in lawful possession of the substance as defined
  by Section 481.002(24) of that code.
         (d)  Except as provided by Subsection (e), an offense under
  Subsection (b) is:
               (1)  a state jail felony if the actor abandoned the
  child, elderly individual, or disabled individual with intent to
  return for the child or individual; or
               (2)  a felony of the third degree if the actor abandoned
  the child, elderly individual, or disabled individual without
  intent to return for the child or individual.
         (e)  An offense under Subsection (b) is a felony of the
  second degree if the actor abandons the child, elderly individual,
  or disabled individual under circumstances that a reasonable person
  would believe would place the child or individual in imminent
  danger of death, bodily injury, or physical or mental impairment.
         (f)  An offense under Subsection (c) is a state jail felony.
         (g)  It is a defense to prosecution under Subsection (c) that
  the act or omission enables the child, elderly individual, or
  disabled individual to practice for or participate in an organized
  athletic event and that appropriate safety equipment and procedures
  are employed in the event.
         (h)  It is an exception to the application of this section
  for abandoning or endangering a child that the actor voluntarily
  delivered the child to a designated emergency infant care provider
  under Section 262.302, Family Code.
         SECTION 2.  Article 12.01, Code of Criminal Procedure, is
  amended to read as follows:
         Art. 12.01.  FELONIES. Except as provided in Article 12.03,
  felony indictments may be presented within these limits, and not
  afterward:
               (1)  no limitation:
                     (A)  murder and manslaughter;
                     (B)  sexual assault under Section 22.011(a)(2),
  Penal Code, or aggravated sexual assault under Section
  22.021(a)(1)(B), Penal Code;
                     (C)  sexual assault, if:
                           (i)  during the investigation of the offense
  biological matter is collected and the matter:
                                 (a)  has not yet been subjected to
  forensic DNA testing; or
                                 (b)  has been subjected to forensic DNA
  testing and the testing results show that the matter does not match
  the victim or any other person whose identity is readily
  ascertained; or
                           (ii)  probable cause exists to believe that
  the defendant has committed the same or a similar sex offense
  against five or more victims;
                     (D)  continuous sexual abuse of young child or
  disabled individual under Section 21.02, Penal Code;
                     (E)  indecency with a child under Section 21.11,
  Penal Code;
                     (F)  an offense involving leaving the scene of an
  accident under Section 550.021, Transportation Code, if the
  accident resulted in the death of a person;
                     (G)  trafficking of persons under Section
  20A.02(a)(7) or (8), Penal Code;
                     (H)  continuous trafficking of persons under
  Section 20A.03, Penal Code; or
                     (I)  compelling prostitution under Section
  43.05(a)(2), Penal Code;
               (2)  ten years from the date of the commission of the
  offense:
                     (A)  theft of any estate, real, personal or mixed,
  by an executor, administrator, guardian or trustee, with intent to
  defraud any creditor, heir, legatee, ward, distributee,
  beneficiary or settlor of a trust interested in such estate;
                     (B)  theft by a public servant of government
  property over which the public servant exercises control in the
  public servant's official capacity;
                     (C)  forgery or the uttering, using, or passing of
  forged instruments;
                     (D)  injury to an elderly or disabled individual
  punishable as a felony of the first degree under Section 22.04,
  Penal Code;
                     (E)  sexual assault, except as provided by
  Subdivision (1) or (7);
                     (F)  arson;
                     (G)  trafficking of persons under Section
  20A.02(a)(1), (2), (3), or (4), Penal Code; or
                     (H)  compelling prostitution under Section
  43.05(a)(1), Penal Code;
               (3)  seven years from the date of the commission of the
  offense:
                     (A)  misapplication of fiduciary property or
  property of a financial institution;
                     (B)  fraudulent securing of document execution;
                     (C)  a felony violation under Chapter 162, Tax
  Code;
                     (D)  false statement to obtain property or credit
  under Section 32.32, Penal Code;
                     (E)  money laundering;
                     (F)  credit card or debit card abuse under Section
  32.31, Penal Code;
                     (G)  fraudulent use or possession of identifying
  information under Section 32.51, Penal Code;
                     (H)  exploitation of a child, elderly individual,
  or disabled individual under Section 32.53, Penal Code;
                     (I)  health care fraud under Section 35A.02, Penal
  Code; or
                     (J)  bigamy under Section 25.01, Penal Code,
  except as provided by Subdivision (6);
               (4)  five years from the date of the commission of the
  offense:
                     (A)  theft or robbery;
                     (B)  except as provided by Subdivision (5),
  kidnapping or burglary;
                     (C)  injury to an elderly or disabled individual
  that is not punishable as a felony of the first degree under Section
  22.04, Penal Code;
                     (D)  abandoning or endangering a child, elderly
  individual, or disabled individual; or
                     (E)  insurance fraud;
               (5)  if the investigation of the offense shows that the
  victim is younger than 17 years of age at the time the offense is
  committed, 20 years from the 18th birthday of the victim of one of
  the following offenses:
                     (A)  sexual performance by a child under Section
  43.25, Penal Code;
                     (B)  aggravated kidnapping under Section
  20.04(a)(4), Penal Code, if the defendant committed the offense
  with the intent to violate or abuse the victim sexually; or
                     (C)  burglary under Section 30.02, Penal Code, if
  the offense is punishable under Subsection (d) of that section and
  the defendant committed the offense with the intent to commit an
  offense described by Subdivision (1)(B) or (D) of this article or
  Paragraph (B) of this subdivision;
               (6)  ten years from the 18th birthday of the victim of
  the offense:
                     (A)  trafficking of persons under Section
  20A.02(a)(5) or (6), Penal Code;
                     (B)  injury to a child under Section 22.04, Penal
  Code; or
                     (C)  bigamy under Section 25.01, Penal Code, if
  the investigation of the offense shows that the person, other than
  the legal spouse of the defendant, whom the defendant marries or
  purports to marry or with whom the defendant lives under the
  appearance of being married is younger than 18 years of age at the
  time the offense is committed;
               (7)  two years from the date the offense was
  discovered: sexual assault punishable as a state jail felony under
  Section 22.011(f)(2), Penal Code; or
               (8)  three years from the date of the commission of the
  offense:  all other felonies.
         SECTION 3.  Section 201.062(a), Estates Code, is amended to
  read as follows:
         (a)  A probate court may enter an order declaring that the
  parent of a child under 18 years of age may not inherit from or
  through the child under the laws of descent and distribution if the
  court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the parent has:
               (1)  voluntarily abandoned and failed to support the
  child in accordance with the parent's obligation or ability for at
  least three years before the date of the child's death, and did not
  resume support for the child before that date;
               (2)  voluntarily and with knowledge of the pregnancy:
                     (A)  abandoned the child's mother beginning at a
  time during her pregnancy with the child and continuing through the
  birth;
                     (B)  failed to provide adequate support or medical
  care for the mother during the period of abandonment before the
  child's birth; and
                     (C)  remained apart from and failed to support the
  child since birth; or
               (3)  been convicted or has been placed on community
  supervision, including deferred adjudication community
  supervision, for being criminally responsible for the death or
  serious injury of a child under the following sections of the Penal
  Code or adjudicated under Title 3, Family Code, for conduct that
  caused the death or serious injury of a child and that would
  constitute a violation of one of the following sections of the Penal
  Code:
                     (A)  Section 19.02 (murder);
                     (B)  Section 19.03 (capital murder);
                     (C)  Section 19.04 (manslaughter);
                     (D)  Section 21.11 (indecency with a child);
                     (E)  Section 22.01 (assault);
                     (F)  Section 22.011 (sexual assault);
                     (G)  Section 22.02 (aggravated assault);
                     (H)  Section 22.021 (aggravated sexual assault);
                     (I)  Section 22.04 (injury to a child, elderly
  individual, or disabled individual);
                     (J)  Section 22.041 (abandoning or endangering a
  child, elderly individual, or disabled individual);
                     (K)  Section 25.02 (prohibited sexual conduct);
                     (L)  Section 43.25 (sexual performance by a
  child); or
                     (M)  Section 43.26 (possession or promotion of
  child pornography).
         SECTION 4.  Section 1104.353(b), Estates Code, is amended to
  read as follows:
         (b)  It is presumed to be not in the best interests of a ward
  or incapacitated person to appoint as guardian of the ward or
  incapacitated person a person who has been finally convicted of:
               (1)  any sexual offense, including sexual assault,
  aggravated sexual assault, and prohibited sexual conduct;
               (2)  aggravated assault;
               (3)  injury to a child, elderly individual, or disabled
  individual;
               (4)  abandoning or endangering a child, elderly
  individual, or disabled individual;
               (5)  terroristic threat; or
               (6)  continuous violence against the family of the ward
  or incapacitated person.
         SECTION 5.  Section 161.001(b), Family Code, is amended to
  read as follows:
         (b)  The court may order termination of the parent-child
  relationship if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence:
               (1)  that the parent has:
                     (A)  voluntarily left the child alone or in the
  possession of another not the parent and expressed an intent not to
  return;
                     (B)  voluntarily left the child alone or in the
  possession of another not the parent without expressing an intent
  to return, without providing for the adequate support of the child,
  and remained away for a period of at least three months;
                     (C)  voluntarily left the child alone or in the
  possession of another without providing adequate support of the
  child and remained away for a period of at least six months;
                     (D)  knowingly placed or knowingly allowed the
  child to remain in conditions or surroundings which endanger the
  physical or emotional well-being of the child;
                     (E)  engaged in conduct or knowingly placed the
  child with persons who engaged in conduct which endangers the
  physical or emotional well-being of the child;
                     (F)  failed to support the child in accordance
  with the parent's ability during a period of one year ending within
  six months of the date of the filing of the petition;
                     (G)  abandoned the child without identifying the
  child or furnishing means of identification, and the child's
  identity cannot be ascertained by the exercise of reasonable
  diligence;
                     (H)  voluntarily, and with knowledge of the
  pregnancy, abandoned the mother of the child beginning at a time
  during her pregnancy with the child and continuing through the
  birth, failed to provide adequate support or medical care for the
  mother during the period of abandonment before the birth of the
  child, and remained apart from the child or failed to support the
  child since the birth;
                     (I)  contumaciously refused to submit to a
  reasonable and lawful order of a court under Subchapter D, Chapter
  261;
                     (J)  been the major cause of:
                           (i)  the failure of the child to be enrolled
  in school as required by the Education Code; or
                           (ii)  the child's absence from the child's
  home without the consent of the parents or guardian for a
  substantial length of time or without the intent to return;
                     (K)  executed before or after the suit is filed an
  unrevoked or irrevocable affidavit of relinquishment of parental
  rights as provided by this chapter;
                     (L)  been convicted or has been placed on
  community supervision, including deferred adjudication community
  supervision, for being criminally responsible for the death or
  serious injury of a child under the following sections of the Penal
  Code, or under a law of another jurisdiction that contains elements
  that are substantially similar to the elements of an offense under
  one of the following Penal Code sections, or adjudicated under
  Title 3 for conduct that caused the death or serious injury of a
  child and that would constitute a violation of one of the following
  Penal Code sections:
                           (i)  Section 19.02 (murder);
                           (ii)  Section 19.03 (capital murder);
                           (iii)  Section 19.04 (manslaughter);
                           (iv)  Section 21.11 (indecency with a
  child);
                           (v)  Section 22.01 (assault);
                           (vi)  Section 22.011 (sexual assault);
                           (vii)  Section 22.02 (aggravated assault);
                           (viii)  Section 22.021 (aggravated sexual
  assault);
                           (ix)  Section 22.04 (injury to a child,
  elderly individual, or disabled individual);
                           (x)  Section 22.041 (abandoning or
  endangering a child, elderly individual, or disabled individual);
                           (xi)  Section 25.02 (prohibited sexual
  conduct);
                           (xii)  Section 43.25 (sexual performance by
  a child);
                           (xiii)  Section 43.26 (possession or
  promotion of child pornography);
                           (xiv)  Section 21.02 (continuous sexual
  abuse of young child or disabled individual);
                           (xv)  Section 20A.02(a)(7) or (8)
  (trafficking of persons); and
                           (xvi)  Section 43.05(a)(2) (compelling
  prostitution);
                     (M)  had his or her parent-child relationship
  terminated with respect to another child based on a finding that the
  parent's conduct was in violation of Paragraph (D) or (E) or
  substantially equivalent provisions of the law of another state;
                     (N)  constructively abandoned the child who has
  been in the permanent or temporary managing conservatorship of the
  Department of Family and Protective Services for not less than six
  months, and:
                           (i)  the department has made reasonable
  efforts to return the child to the parent;
                           (ii)  the parent has not regularly visited
  or maintained significant contact with the child; and
                           (iii)  the parent has demonstrated an
  inability to provide the child with a safe environment;
                     (O)  failed to comply with the provisions of a
  court order that specifically established the actions necessary for
  the parent to obtain the return of the child who has been in the
  permanent or temporary managing conservatorship of the Department
  of Family and Protective Services for not less than nine months as a
  result of the child's removal from the parent under Chapter 262 for
  the abuse or neglect of the child;
                     (P)  used a controlled substance, as defined by
  Chapter 481, Health and Safety Code, in a manner that endangered the
  health or safety of the child, and:
                           (i)  failed to complete a court-ordered
  substance abuse treatment program; or
                           (ii)  after completion of a court-ordered
  substance abuse treatment program, continued to abuse a controlled
  substance;
                     (Q)  knowingly engaged in criminal conduct that
  has resulted in the parent's:
                           (i)  conviction of an offense; and
                           (ii)  confinement or imprisonment and
  inability to care for the child for not less than two years from the
  date of filing the petition;
                     (R)  been the cause of the child being born
  addicted to alcohol or a controlled substance, other than a
  controlled substance legally obtained by prescription;
                     (S)  voluntarily delivered the child to a
  designated emergency infant care provider under Section 262.302
  without expressing an intent to return for the child;
                     (T)  been convicted of:
                           (i)  the murder of the other parent of the
  child under Section 19.02 or 19.03, Penal Code, or under a law of
  another state, federal law, the law of a foreign country, or the
  Uniform Code of Military Justice that contains elements that are
  substantially similar to the elements of an offense under Section
  19.02 or 19.03, Penal Code;
                           (ii)  criminal attempt under Section 15.01,
  Penal Code, or under a law of another state, federal law, the law of
  a foreign country, or the Uniform Code of Military Justice that
  contains elements that are substantially similar to the elements of
  an offense under Section 15.01, Penal Code, to commit the offense
  described by Subparagraph (i);
                           (iii)  criminal solicitation under Section
  15.03, Penal Code, or under a law of another state, federal law, the
  law of a foreign country, or the Uniform Code of Military Justice
  that contains elements that are substantially similar to the
  elements of an offense under Section 15.03, Penal Code, of the
  offense described by Subparagraph (i); or
                           (iv)  the sexual assault of the other parent
  of the child under Section 22.011 or 22.021, Penal Code, or under a
  law of another state, federal law, or the Uniform Code of Military
  Justice that contains elements that are substantially similar to
  the elements of an offense under Section 22.011 or 22.021, Penal
  Code; or
                     (U)  been placed on community supervision,
  including deferred adjudication community supervision, or another
  functionally equivalent form of community supervision or
  probation, for being criminally responsible for the sexual assault
  of the other parent of the child under Section 22.011 or 22.021,
  Penal Code, or under a law of another state, federal law, or the
  Uniform Code of Military Justice that contains elements that are
  substantially similar to the elements of an offense under Section
  22.011 or 22.021, Penal Code; and
               (2)  that termination is in the best interest of the
  child.
         SECTION 6.  Section 262.2015(b), Family Code, is amended to
  read as follows:
         (b)  The court may find under Subsection (a) that a parent
  has subjected the child to aggravated circumstances if:
               (1)  the parent abandoned the child without
  identification or a means for identifying the child;
               (2)  the child or another child of the parent is a
  victim of serious bodily injury or sexual abuse inflicted by the
  parent or by another person with the parent's consent;
               (3)  the parent has engaged in conduct against the
  child or another child of the parent that would constitute an
  offense under the following provisions of the Penal Code:
                     (A)  Section 19.02 (murder);
                     (B)  Section 19.03 (capital murder);
                     (C)  Section 19.04 (manslaughter);
                     (D)  Section 21.11 (indecency with a child);
                     (E)  Section 22.011 (sexual assault);
                     (F)  Section 22.02 (aggravated assault);
                     (G)  Section 22.021 (aggravated sexual assault);
                     (H)  Section 22.04 (injury to a child, elderly
  individual, or disabled individual);
                     (I)  Section 22.041 (abandoning or endangering a
  child, elderly individual, or disabled individual);
                     (J)  Section 25.02 (prohibited sexual conduct);
                     (K)  Section 43.25 (sexual performance by a
  child);
                     (L)  Section 43.26 (possession or promotion of
  child pornography);
                     (M)  Section 21.02 (continuous sexual abuse of
  young child or disabled individual);
                     (N)  Section 43.05(a)(2) (compelling
  prostitution); or
                     (O)  Section 20A.02(a)(7) or (8) (trafficking of
  persons);
               (4)  the parent voluntarily left the child alone or in
  the possession of another person not the parent of the child for at
  least six months without expressing an intent to return and without
  providing adequate support for the child;
               (5)  the parent has been convicted for:
                     (A)  the murder of another child of the parent and
  the offense would have been an offense under 18 U.S.C. Section
  1111(a) if the offense had occurred in the special maritime or
  territorial jurisdiction of the United States;
                     (B)  the voluntary manslaughter of another child
  of the parent and the offense would have been an offense under 18
  U.S.C. Section 1112(a) if the offense had occurred in the special
  maritime or territorial jurisdiction of the United States;
                     (C)  aiding or abetting, attempting, conspiring,
  or soliciting an offense under Paragraph (A) or (B); or
                     (D)  the felony assault of the child or another
  child of the parent that resulted in serious bodily injury to the
  child or another child of the parent; or
               (6)  the parent is required under any state or federal
  law to register with a sex offender registry.
         SECTION 7.  Section 250.006(a), Health and Safety Code, is
  amended to read as follows:
         (a)  A person for whom the facility or the individual
  employer is entitled to obtain criminal history record information
  may not be employed in a facility or by an individual employer if
  the person has been convicted of an offense listed in this
  subsection:
               (1)  an offense under Chapter 19, Penal Code (criminal
  homicide);
               (2)  an offense under Chapter 20, Penal Code
  (kidnapping, unlawful restraint, and smuggling of persons);
               (3)  an offense under Section 21.02, Penal Code
  (continuous sexual abuse of young child or disabled individual), or
  Section 21.11, Penal Code (indecency with a child);
               (4)  an offense under Section 22.011, Penal Code
  (sexual assault);
               (5)  an offense under Section 22.02, Penal Code
  (aggravated assault);
               (6)  an offense under Section 22.04, Penal Code (injury
  to a child, elderly individual, or disabled individual);
               (7)  an offense under Section 22.041, Penal Code
  (abandoning or endangering a child, elderly individual, or disabled
  individual);
               (8)  an offense under Section 22.08, Penal Code (aiding
  suicide);
               (9)  an offense under Section 25.031, Penal Code
  (agreement to abduct from custody);
               (10)  an offense under Section 25.08, Penal Code (sale
  or purchase of child);
               (11)  an offense under Section 28.02, Penal Code
  (arson);
               (12)  an offense under Section 29.02, Penal Code
  (robbery);
               (13)  an offense under Section 29.03, Penal Code
  (aggravated robbery);
               (14)  an offense under Section 21.08, Penal Code
  (indecent exposure);
               (15)  an offense under Section 21.12, Penal Code
  (improper relationship between educator and student);
               (16)  an offense under Section 21.15, Penal Code
  (invasive visual recording);
               (17)  an offense under Section 22.05, Penal Code
  (deadly conduct);
               (18)  an offense under Section 22.021, Penal Code
  (aggravated sexual assault);
               (19)  an offense under Section 22.07, Penal Code
  (terroristic threat);
               (20)  an offense under Section 32.53, Penal Code
  (exploitation of child, elderly individual, or disabled
  individual);
               (21)  an offense under Section 33.021, Penal Code
  (online solicitation of a minor);
               (22)  an offense under Section 34.02, Penal Code (money
  laundering);
               (23)  an offense under Section 35A.02, Penal Code
  (health care fraud);
               (24)  an offense under Section 36.06, Penal Code
  (obstruction or retaliation);
               (25)  an offense under Section 42.09, Penal Code
  (cruelty to livestock animals), or under Section 42.092, Penal Code
  (cruelty to nonlivestock animals); or
               (26)  a conviction under the laws of another state,
  federal law, or the Uniform Code of Military Justice for an offense
  containing elements that are substantially similar to the elements
  of an offense listed by this subsection.
         SECTION 8.  Section 301.4535(a), Occupations Code, is
  amended to read as follows:
         (a)  The board shall suspend a nurse's license or refuse to
  issue a license to an applicant on proof that the nurse or applicant
  has been initially convicted of:
               (1)  murder under Section 19.02, Penal Code, capital
  murder under Section 19.03, Penal Code, or manslaughter under
  Section 19.04, Penal Code;
               (2)  kidnapping or unlawful restraint under Chapter 20,
  Penal Code, and the offense was punished as a felony or state jail
  felony;
               (3)  sexual assault under Section 22.011, Penal Code;
               (4)  aggravated sexual assault under Section 22.021,
  Penal Code;
               (5)  continuous sexual abuse of young child or disabled
  individual under Section 21.02, Penal Code, or indecency with a
  child under Section 21.11, Penal Code;
               (6)  aggravated assault under Section 22.02, Penal
  Code;
               (7)  intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly injuring
  a child, elderly individual, or disabled individual under Section
  22.04, Penal Code;
               (8)  intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly
  abandoning or endangering a child, elderly individual, or disabled
  individual under Section 22.041, Penal Code;
               (9)  aiding suicide under Section 22.08, Penal Code,
  and the offense was punished as a state jail felony;
               (10)  an offense involving a violation of certain court
  orders or conditions of bond under Section 25.07, 25.071, or
  25.072, Penal Code, punished as a felony;
               (11)  an agreement to abduct a child from custody under
  Section 25.031, Penal Code;
               (12)  the sale or purchase of a child under Section
  25.08, Penal Code;
               (13)  robbery under Section 29.02, Penal Code;
               (14)  aggravated robbery under Section 29.03, Penal
  Code;
               (15)  an offense for which a defendant is required to
  register as a sex offender under Chapter 62, Code of Criminal
  Procedure; or
               (16)  an offense under the law of another state,
  federal law, or the Uniform Code of Military Justice that contains
  elements that are substantially similar to the elements of an
  offense listed in this subsection.
         SECTION 9.  The changes in law made by this Act apply only to
  an offense committed on or after the effective date of this Act. An
  offense committed before the effective date of this Act is governed
  by the law in effect on the date the offense was committed, and the
  former law is continued in effect for that purpose. For purposes of
  this section, an offense was committed before the effective date of
  this Act if any element of the offense was committed before that
  date.
         SECTION 10.  This Act takes effect September 1, 2023.
 
 
  ______________________________ ______________________________
     President of the Senate Speaker of the House     
 
 
         I certify that H.B. No. 2187 was passed by the House on May 9,
  2023, by the following vote:  Yeas 140, Nays 2, 2 present, not
  voting.
 
  ______________________________
  Chief Clerk of the House   
 
 
         I certify that H.B. No. 2187 was passed by the Senate on May
  24, 2023, by the following vote:  Yeas 31, Nays 0.
 
  ______________________________
  Secretary of the Senate    
  APPROVED:  _____________________
                     Date          
   
            _____________________
                   Governor